EKSTRAKSI MINYAK KULIT BIJI METE DARI LIMBAH KULIT BIJI JAMBU METE (Anacardium occidentale) DENGAN ALAT ULTRASONIC CLEANING BATH

Wara Dyah Pita Rengga, Dwi - Hartanto, Bayu Tri Wibowo, Mohammad Setiawan

Abstract


Limbah kulit mete dapat manfaatkan sebagai bahan baku salah satu industri cat genteng dan minyak rem. Proses ekstraksi konvensional sebagian besar kurang memberikan perpindahan massa sehingga proses ekstraksi lambat dan tidak maksimal untuk mendapatkan minyak kulit mete. Pelarut dalam jumlah yang berlebihan sering digunakan namun membuat proses menjadi mahal dan mencemari lingkungan. Solusi yang tepat dalam mengekstraksi yaitu dengan bantuan ultrasonik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan optimasi proses ekstraksi minyak kulit mete dengan mengunakan gelombang ultrasonik dengan fekuensi 42 kHz. Pengaruh yang dipelajari adalah rasio serbuk  kulit mete terhadap pelarut n-heksana, dan waktu ekstraksi. Metode permukaan respon dengan rancangan Central Composite Design digunakan untuk memperoleh model matematis yang menggambarkan hubungan antara rendemen minyak kulit mete terhadap rasio dan waktu ekstraksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi optimum ekstraksi minyak kulit mete pada komposisi perbandingan serbuk kulit mete terhadap pelarut n-heksana sebesar 1:3,25 (g/g) selama 90 menit dengan rendemen sebesar 36,15%. Minyak kulit mete mengandung asam anakardat, kardanol, dan senyawa fenol lainnya.

Cashew shell waste can be utilized as a raw material for one of the tile paint and brake oil industries. The conventional extraction process mostly provides less mass transfer, so the extraction process is slow and not maximal. Excessive amounts of solvents are often used but make the process expensive and pollute the environment. The right solution in extracting is with the help of ultrasonic. This study aims to obtain an optimization of cashew oil extraction process using ultrasonic waves with a frequency of 42 kHz. The effect studied was the ratio of cashew powder to n-hexane solvents and extraction time. The surface response method with the design of Central Composite Design was used to obtain a mathematical model that illustrates the relationship between the yield of cashew shell oil to the ratio and time of extraction. The results showed that the optimum condition of cashew nut oil extraction in the comparison composition of cashew skin powder against n-hexane solvent was 1: 3.25 (g / g) for 90 minutes with a yield of 36.15%. Cashew skin oil contains anacardic acid, cardanol, and other phenol compounds.


Keywords


cashew shell; extraction; n-hexane; ultrasonic waves; anacardic acid

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31315/e.v0i0.1969

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