Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Jelantah dengan Bantuan Gelombang Ultrasonik

Sri Wahyu Murni, Latifah Nurrahmaningsih, Punden Fitrianti, Alex Sando, Jefry Roy James

Abstract


ABSTRAK: Pada penelitian ini, dipelajari pengaruh dari gelombang ultrasonik terhadap reaksi transesterifikasi dari minyak jelantah menjadi biodiesel. Pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak jelantah dilaksanakan dalam dua tahap. Seluruh reaksi dijalankan dengan gelombang ultrasonik berdaya 750 watt dan frekuensi 20 kHz. Tahap pertama adalah proses esterifikasi yang bertujuan mengurangi kandungan asam lemak bebas (FFA) menggunakan katalis asam. Reaksi esterifikasi berlangsung dalam kondisi tertentu. Tahap kedua adalah produksi biodiesel melalui transesterifikasi menggunakan katalis alkali. Parameter yang dipelajari adalah efek dari suhu dan amplitude terhadap reaksi transesterifikasi. Hasil dari percobaan menunjukkan bahwa kandungan FFA dapat diturunkan menjadi 0,77% menggunakan katalis asam sulfat 1% w/w minyak, rasio methanol terhadap minyak 6:1, dan waktu reaksi 60 menit. Selanjutnya, minyak diubah menjadi biodiesel menggunakan katalis KOH, dan diperoleh konversi sebesar 83% dengan jumlah katalis 1% w/w minyak, rasio methanol terhadap minyak 6:1, frekuensi 20 kHz, amplitude 50%, suhu 60°C, dan waktu reaksi 40 menit. Biodiesel yang dihasilkan memiliki densitas 879 kg/m3, viskositas 5,67 cst, titik nyala 158 °C, titik tuang 16 °C, kandungan air 0,0642%, dan nilai kalori 8521,1 kkal/kg

Kata Kunci: amplitudo; biodiesel; transesterifikasi; ultrasonik; minyak jelantah

 

ABSTRACT: In this research, the effect of ultrasonic on the transesterification reaction of waste cooking oil to biodiesel is studied. The biodiesel production from waste cooking oil is conducted in two process stages. All reactions are conducted with the ultrasonic power of 750 watt and frequency of 20 kHz. The first stage is the esterification process that aims to reduce the free fatty acid (FFA) contents using acid catalyst. The esterification reaction is carried out in certain condition. The second stage is the production of biodiesel through transesterification using alkaline catalyst. The parameters being studied are the effect temperature and ultrasonic amplitude to the transesterification reaction. The results shows that the FFA content can be reduced to 0,77% using sulfuric acid catalyst 1% by weight of oil, methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and a reaction time of 60 minutes. Then, the oil is converted into biodiesel using KOH catalyst. The obtained conversion is 83% with the catalyst amount of 1% by weight of oil, methanol to oil ratio of 6:1,  frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 50%, temperature of 60oC  and reaction time of 40 minutes. The biodiesel has a density of  879 kg /m3, 5,67 cst of viscosity, flash point   of 158oC,  pour point of 16oC, water content 0,0642% and caloric value 8521,1 kkal/kg.

Keywords: amplitude; biodiesel; transesterification; ultrasonic; waste cooking oil


Keywords


amplitude, biodiesel, transesterification, ultrasonic, waste cooking oil

References


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http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/3.0 diakses pada 10 januari 2017

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Eksergi p-ISSN  1410-394X, e-ISSN 2460-8203,  is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Yogyakarta.

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