Effect of the Phenol Concentration on the Phenol Photodegradation Effectivity using TitaniaCarbon Nanotube-cocoPAS Composite

Desi Heltina, Nadhia Gasani Putri, Panca Setia Utama


Aromatic compounds in industrial wastewater such as phenols can contribute as pollutants which are highly toxic and carcinogenic. Phenol degradation can be carried out by a photocatalytic process which can convert phenol into non-toxic and enviromentally friendly compounds. The performance of titania (TiO2) photocatalyst was enhanced by using carbon nanotube as a doping agent for titania. To reduce carbon nanotube agglomeration, the surface of carbon nanotube was modified with cocoPAS surfactant. The purpose of this study was to synthesize titania-carbon nanotube-cocoPAS composite and evaluated the effect of initial phenol concentration (10, 20, 30 ppm) on the phenol photodegradation effectivity using titania-carbon nanotube-cocoPAS composite. Titania-carbon nanotube-cocoPAS composite synthesis was carried out by forming a composite between TiO2 and carbon nanotube that had been modified by surfactant. Composite were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD. Phenol photodegradation was carried out at a degradation temperature of 50ºC for 4 hours under UV light. Samples were drawn at regular intervals and residual concentration of phenol in each sample was analysed using UV-Visible spechtrophotometer. The highest degradation effectivity in 4 hours was 81% at initial phenol concentration of 10 ppm.


fotokatalisis; degradasi; komposit; titania; carbon nanotube; fenol; konsentrasi


Ai, M., Wenli, Q., Tian, X., Ying, Y., Xuegang, C. & Pingping, Z., 2019, Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by TiO2 intercalated talc nanocomposite, International Journal of Photoenergy, Vol. 2019, Maret: 1-11.

Alwash, A., Hadeel, A., Zainab, H. & Emad, Y., 2018, Potential of carbon nanotubes in enhance of photocatalyst activity, Archives of Nanomedicine: Open Access Journal, Vol.1 No.3, Juni: 65-70.

Ani, I.J., Akpan, U.G., Olutoye,M.A. & Hameed, B.H., 2018, Photocatalytic degradation of pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater by TiO2- and ZnO- based photocatalysts: Recent development, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol.205, Agustus: 930-954.

Chowdhury, P., Sharmistha, N. & Ajay, K.R., 2017, Degradation of phenolic compounds through UV and visible-light-driven photocatalysis: Technical and economic aspects. Di dalam: Hernandez, M.S. (ed). Phenolic Compounds Natural Sources, Importance and Applications. hlm 395-417. InTech, Open Science, doi: 10.5772/66134.

Dang, T.T.T., Le,S.T.T., Channel, D.,Khanitchaidecha, W. & Nakaruk, A., 2016, Photodegradation mechanisms of phenol in the photocatalytic process, Research on Chemical Intermediates, Vol.42 No.6, Desember: 5961-5974.

Deiana, C., Ettore, F., Salvatore, C. & Gianmaria, M., 2010, Surface structure of TiO2 P25 nanoparticles: infrared study of hydroxy groups on coordinative defect sites, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol.114 No.49, November: 21531-21538.

Dong, H., Guangming, Z., Lin, T., Changzheng, F., Chang, Z., Xiaohiao, H., & Yan, H, 2015, An overview on limitations of TiO2-based particles for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants and the corresponding countermeasures, Water Research, Vol.79, Mei: 128-146.

Gangu, K.K., Suresh, M. & Sreekantha, B.J., 2019, A review on novel composites of MWCNTs mediated semiconducting materials as photocatalysts in water treatment, Science of the Total Environment, Vol.646, Juli: 1398-1412.

Heltina, D., Karina, O.V. & Slamet., 2014, Efektivitas kinerja komposit carbon nanotube-titania untuk eliminasi fenol, Simposium Nasional RAPI XII.K-42 – K-49, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, ISSN: 1412-9612.

Ho, T.N.S, Nguyen, T.T., Pham, T.H.T., Ngo, M.T., & Le, M.V, 2020, Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solutions using TiO2/SiO2 composite, Chemical Engineering Transactions, Vol.78, Februari: 427-432.

Lamprecht, C., J. Torin, H., Marina, V.I & Marianna, F., 2011, Non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with surfactants for pharmaceutical applications- A critical mini-review, Drug Delivery Letters, Vol.1 No.1, Juli: 45-57.

Laoufi, N.A., Tassalit,D. & Bentahar, F., 2008, The degradation of phenol in water solution by TiO2photocatalysis in a helical reactor, Global NEST Journal, Vol.10 No.3, Januari: 404-418.

Li, H., & Qiu, Y., 2019, Dispersion, sedimentation and aggregation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as affected by single and binary mixed surfactants, Royal Society Open Science, Vol.6 No.7, Juli: 1-9.

Luttrell, T., Sandamali, H., Junguang, T., Alan, K., Eli, S. & Matthias, B., 2014, Why is anatase a better photocatalyst than rutile? –Model studies on epitaxial TiO2 films, Scientific Reports, Vol.4 No.4043, Februari: 1-9, doi: 10.1038/srep04043.

Neto, J.O.M., Carlos, R.B., Carlos, H.F.S., Rene, C.S. & Pablo, A.R., 2017, Synthesis, characterization and enhanced photocatalytic activity of iron oxide/carbon nanotube/Ag-doped TiO2 nanocomposites, Journal Brazil Chemical Society, Vol.28 No.12, Mei: 2301-2312.

Park, K., En, M.J., Hal, B.G., Sang, E.S. & Chang, K.H., 2009, Effects of HNO3 treatment of TiO2 nanoparticles on the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells, Material Letters, Vol.63 No.26, Juli: 2208-2211.

Rahmani, A., Hadi, R. & Somayeh, B., 2019, Photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compound (phenol, resorcinol and cresol) by titanium dioxide photocatalyst on ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) support under UV irradiation, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol.144, Juni: 224-232.

Richards, C., Mansur, S.M. & Gordon, J.T.T., 2009, Formulating liquid detergents with naturally derived surfactants-phase behaviour, crystallisation and rheo-stability of primary alkyl sulfates based on coconut oil, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol.338 No.1-3, April: 119-128.

Safni, Mechy R.W., Khoiriah, & Yulizar, Y., 2019, Photodegradation of phenol using N-doped TiO2 catalyst, Molekul, Vol.14 No.1, Mei: 6-10.

Shaban, M., Abdallah, M.A. & Mostafa, R.A., 2018, TiO2 nanoribbons/carbon nanotubes composite with enhanced photocatalytic activity; fabrication, characterization, and application, Scientific Reports, Vol.8 No.1, Januari: 1-17.

Shahbazi, H., Alireza, S. & Saeed, S., 2018, The effect of carbon nanotubes functionalization on the band-gap energy of TiO2-CNT nanocomposites, AIP Conference Proceedings, hlm. 0200401-0200404.

Shawabkeh, R.A., Omar, A.K. & Gasan, I.B., 2010, Photocatalytic degrdation of phenol using Fe-TiO2 by different illumination sources, International Journal of Chemistry, Vol.2 No.2, July: 10-18.

Zabihi, F., Mohamed, R.A.Y. & Morteza, E., 2017, Photocatalytic graphene-TiO2 thin films fabricated by low-temperature ultrasonic vibration-assisted spin and spray coating in a sol-gel process, Catalysts, Vol.7 No.5, Mei: 1-16.

Zhang, J., Peng, Z., Jianjun, L. & Jiaguo, Y., 2014, New understanding of the difference of photocataytic activity among anatase, rutile and brookite TiO2, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vo1.6 No.38, Agustus: 20382-20386.

Zhang, Q., Nan, B., Xinqiang, W., Xinde, H., Xinhan, M., Mohamed, C., & Dongling, M., 2016, Advanced fabrication of chemical bonded graphene/TiO2 continuous fibers with enhanced broadband photocatalytic properties and involved mechanisms exploration, Scientific Reports, Vol.6 No.38066, Desember: 1-15. doi: 10.1038/srep38066.

Zueva, O.S., Makshakova, O.N., Idiyatullin, B.Z., Faizullin,D.A., Benevolenskaya, N.N., Borovskaya, A.O. & Yu, F.Z., 2016, Structure and properties of aqueous dispersions of sodium dodecyl sulfate with carbon nanotubes, Russian Chemical Bulletin, International Edition, Vol.65 No.5, Mei: 1208-1215.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31315/e.v17i2.3691


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Eksergi p-ISSN  1410-394X, e-ISSN 2460-8203,  is published by "Prodi Teknik Kimia UPN Veteran Yogyakarta".

Contact  Jl. SWK 104 (Lingkar Utara) Condong catur Sleman Yogyakarta

EKSERGI is associated to APTEKIM (Asosiasi Pendidikan Tinggi Teknik Kimia), Indonesia.

 Creative Commons License

Eksergi by http://jurnal.upnyk.ac.id/index.php/eksergi/index/ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



Lihat Statistik Jurnal Kami