Development of Torque and Drag Calculation Software for Oil Well Planning–Part 1: 2D Aadnoy Method

Singgih Satrio Wibowo, Herman Yoseph Sutarto


With the increasing number of drilled ultra-extended reach wells and complex geometry wells, the drilling limitation caused by excessive torque and drag forces must be further investigated. The wellbore friction being a main limiting factor in extended reach well needs to be studied with the new developed models. The torque and drag software implement two methods: (1) 2D and 3D analytical model developed by Aadnøy (Aadnoy & Andersen, 1998; Aadnoy & Andersen, 2001; Aadnoy & Djurhuus, 2008; Aadnoy, et al., 2010; Aadnoy, 2010) and (2) Miska and Mitchel, for 2D wellbore (Mitchell, et al., 2011). This paper presents the theory and implementation of 2D Aadnoy method. Quite diverse wellbore trajectory and depth has been chosen for a better evaluation and comparison of the model with the measured data. In order to investigate the potential and limitation of the model, torque and drag analysis during the different operations such as tripping in, tripping out, rotating off bottom, combined up/down were investigated.

Full Text:



Aadnoy, B. S., 2010. Modern Well Design. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Aadnoy, B. S. & Andersen, K., 1998. Friction Analysis for Long-Reach Wells. Dallas, Texas, USA, s.n., pp. 819-834.

Aadnoy, B. S. & Andersen, K., 2001. Design of Oil Wells using Analytical Friction Models. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 32(1), pp. 53-71.

Aadnoy, B. S. & Djurhuus, J., 2008. Theory and Application of a New Generalized Model for Torque and Drag. Jakarta, Indonesia, s.n., pp. 1-9.

Aadnoy, B. S., Fazaelizadeh, M. & Hareland, G., 2010. A 3D Analytical

Model for Wellbore Friction. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 48(10), pp. 25-36.

Aarrestad, T. V. & Bikra, H., 1994. Torque and Drag-Two Factors in Extended-Reach Drilling. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 46(9), pp. 800-803.

Abughaban, M., 2017. Extending the Reach of Drilling: Better Wellbore Trajectory and Torque and Drag Models , Golden, Colorado: Colorado School of Mines.

Abughaban, M., 2017. Improving Torque and Drag Prediction Using Advanced Spline Curved Borehole Trajectory. Hague, Netherlands, s.n.

Al-Abduljabbar, A. M., Hossain, E., Gharbi, S. A. & Al-Rubaii, M., 2018. Optimization of Tripping Speed to Minimize Surge & Swab Pressure. Dubai, UAE, s.n.

Anders, M., 2013. Analysis of Drilled Wells on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS), Stavanger: University of Stavanger.

Bourgoyne, A. T., Millheim, K. K., Chenevert, M. E. & Young, F. S., 1991. Applied Drilling Engineering. Richardson, TX: Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Brekke, A., 2016. Torque and Drag Friction Model, Implemented Friction Factor Dependency of Temperature, Stavanger: University of Stavanger.

Burkhardt, J. A., 1960. Wellbore Pressure Surges Produced by Pipe Movement. Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Department, S.-S. T., 2001. Directional Surveying Fundamentals. Houston: Halliburton Company.

Fazaelizadeh, M., 2013. Real Time Torque and Drag Analysis during Directional Drilling, Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary.

Fazaelizadeh, M., Hareland, G. & Aadnoy, B. S., 2010. Application of New 3-D Analytical Model for Directional Wellbore Friction. Modern Applied Science, 4(2), pp. 2-22.

Gjerstad, K., Rune, W. & Bjorkevoll, 2013. A Medium-Order Flow Model for Dynamic Pressure Surges in Tripping Operations. The Netherlans, s.n.

Gu, H., Newman, K. R. & Hauglund, L. F., 1993. Analysis of Slack-Off Force Transmitted Downhole in Coiled-Tubing Operations. Houston, Texas, s.n.

Ho, H. S., 1988. An Improved Modeling Program for Computing the Torque and Drag in Directional and Deep Wells. Houston, Texas, s.n.

Ismayilov, O., 2012. Application of 3-D Analytical Model for Wellbore Friction Calculation in Actual Wells, Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Johancsik, C. A., Friesen, D. B. & Dawson, R., 1984. Torque and Drag in Directional Wells-Prediction and Measurement. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 36(6), pp. 987-992.

Kuswana, G. S., Wibowo, S. S. & Sutarto, H. Y., 2019 . Challenges and Considerations in A Tripping Operation: The Need for An Advanced Control. Bandung, Indonesia, s.n.

Mitchell, R. F., Miska, S. Z. & Aadnoy, B. S., 2011. Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering. Richardson: Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Mitchell, R. F. & Samuel, R., 2009. How Good Is the Torque Drag Model. SPE Drilling & Completion, pp. 62-71.

Sheppard, M. C., Wick, C. & Burgess, T., 1987. Designing Well Paths To Reduce Drag and Torque. SPE Drilling Engineering, 2(4), pp. 344-350.

Tikhonov, V., Valiullin, K. & Nurgaleev, A., 2014. Dynamic Model for Stiff-String Torque and Drag. SPE drilling & completion , 29(3), pp. 279-294.

Wibowo, S. S., 2019. User Manual Software TND. Bandung: PT. Pusat Riset Energi.

Xie, X., 2015. Experimental Design and Mathematical Simulation of Hook Load While Tripping Through Bends, Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.